Leo V. Towle, Ph.D

Professor of Neurology, Surgery and Pediatrics
Technical Director, Intraoperative Monitoring Service
Director, Clinical Evoked Potential Laboratory

5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 2030
Chicago, IL 60637-1470
Phone: 773-702-3271
Secretary: http://neurology.uchicago.edu/Person.aspx?PersonID=46
Fax: 773-702-4066
Lab Website: http://neurology.uchicago.edu/towlelab.uchicago.edu

Education & Training

  • B.A., 1971, The University of California at Davis
  • Ph.D., 1978, The University of North Carolina
  • Postdoc, 1980, The University of Illinois at Urbana

Research Interests

  • Mapping Human Cortical Function
  • Merging Functional and Structural Information
  • Epileptic Seizures


  • Co-Director, The Summer Research Program, Pritzker School of Medicine
  • Co-Director, The Neurology Clerkship

Selected Publications

  • Baruchi, I., Towle, V.L., and Ben-Jacob, E. Functional holography of complex networks activity�from cultures to the human brain. Complexity, 2005, 10: 38-51.
  • Hunter, J.D., Hanan, D.M., Singer, B.F., Shaikh, S., Brubaker, K.A., Hecox, K.E., and Towle, V.L. Locating chronically implanted electrodes using 3-D rendering. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2005, 116: 1984-1987.
  • van Drongelen, W., Nayak, S., Frim, D., Kohrman, M., Towle, V.L., Lee, H., McGee, A., Chico, M. and Hecox, K. Seizure anticipation in pediatric epilepsy: Use of Kolmogorov entropy. Pediatric Neurology, 2003, 29(3):207-213.
  • Zhang, X., van Drongelen, W., Hecox, K.E., Towle, V. L., Frim, D., McGee, A., Lian, J., and He, B. Localization of epileptic foci by means of cortical imaging using a spherical head model. Neurocomputing, 2003, 52-54: 977-982.
  • Troyk, P.R., Bak, M., Berg, J., Bradley, D., Cogan, S., Erickson, R., Kufta, C., McCreery, D., Schmidt, E., and Towle, V.L. A model for intra-cortical visual prosthesis research. Artificial Organs, 2003, 27: 1005-1015.
  • Towle, V.L., Khorasani, L., Uftring, S., Pelizzari, C., Erickson, R. K., Spire, J.-P., Hoffmann, K., Chu, D., and Scherg, M. Noninvasive identification of the human central sulcus: A comparison of gyral morphology, functional MRI dipole localization and direct cortical mapping. NeuroImage, 2003, 19: 684-697.
  • Mundel, T., Milton, J.G., Dimitrov A., Wilson, H.W., Pelizzari, C., Uftring, S., Torres, I., Erickson, R.K., Spire, J.-P. and Towle, V.L. Transient inability to distinguish between faces: Electrophysiologic studies. The Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 2003, 20: 102-110.
  • He, B., Zhang, X., Wu, D., Wang, Y., Sasaki, H., Lian, J., and Towle, V.L. Boundary element method-based cortical potential imaging of somatosensory evoked potentials using subjects� magnetic resonance images. NeuroImage, 2002, 16: 564-576.
  • Chu, D., Huttenlocher, P.R., Towle, V.L., and Levin, D.N. Reorganization of the hand somatosensory cortex following perinatal unilateral brain injury. Neuropediatrics, 2000, 31: 63-69.
  • Towle, V.L., Carder, R.K., Khorasani, L., and Lindberg, D. Electrocorticographic coherence patterns. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 1999, 16: 528-547.
  • Towle, V. L., Syed, I., Berger, C., Grzesczcuk, R., Milton, J., Erickson, R.K., Cogen, P., Berkson, E.M., and Spire, J-P. Identification of the sensory/motor area and pathologic regions using ECoG coherence. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1998, 106: 30-39.
  • Pietro, S., Towle, V. L., Cakmur, R., and Spire, J-P. Maturation of human visual evoked potentials: 27 weeks conceptual age to 2 years. Neuropediatrics, 1997, 28: 318-323.
  • Towle, V.L., Cohen, S., Alperin, N., Hoffmann, K., Cogen, P., Milton, J., Grzesczcuk, R., Pelizzari, C., Syed, I., and Spire, J-P. Displaying electrocorticographic findings on gyral anatomy. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1995, 221-228.
  • Towle, V.L., Cao, Y., Cakmur, R., Brigell, M., and Parmeggiani, L. Locating VEP equivalent dipoles in magnetic resonance images. The M. Russell Harter Memorial Issue of the International Journal of Neuroscience, 1995, 80: 105-116.
  • Cao, Y., Vikingstad, E.M., Huttenlocher, P.R., Towle, V.L., and Levin, D.N. Functional magnetic resonance studies of the reorganization of the human hand sensorimotor area after early unilateral brain injury in the perinatal period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1994, 91: 9612-9616.
  • Cao, Y., Towle, V.L., Levin, D.N., and Balter, J.M. Functional mapping of human motor cortical activation with conventional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 1993, 3: 869-875.
  • Towle, V.L., Bolanos, J., Suarez, D., Tan, K., Grzeszczuk, R., Levin, D.N., Cakmur, R., Frank, S.A. and Spire, J-P. The spatial location of EEG electrodes: Locating the best-fitting sphere relative to cortical anatomy. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1993, 86: 1-6.
  • Witt, J.C, Towle, V.L., Bolanos, J. and Spire, J-P. Tetrahedral recording of 3-D BAEPs: Evidence for the centered dipole model. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1991, 80: 551-560.
  • Blackman, J.D., Towle, V.L., Lewis, G.F., Spire, J-P., and Polonsky, K.S. Hypoglycemic thresholds for cognitive dysfunction in humans. Diabetes, 1990, 39: 828-835.
  • Towle, V.L., Maselli, R., Bernstein, L.P., and Spire, J-P. Electrophysiologic studies on locked-in patients: heterogeneity of findings. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1989, 73: 419-426.
  • Ivanovic, L.V., Rosenberg, R.S., Towle, V.L., Graham, A.M., Gewertz, B.L., Zarins, C., and Spire, J-P. Spectral analysis of EEG during carotid endarterectomy. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 1986, 1: 112-117.
  • Towle, V.L., Sutcliffe, E., and Sokol, S. Detecting functional visual deficits with the P300 component of the visual evoked potential. Archives of Ophthalmology, 1985, 103: 47-50.
  • Towle, V.L., Moskowitz, A., Sokol, S., and Schwartz, B. The visual evoked potential in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: Effects of check size, field size, and stimulation rate. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 1983, 24: 175-183.
  • Towle, V.L., and Harter, M.R. Objective determination of human visual acuity from the visual evoked potential. Perception & Psychophysics, 1979, 25: 497-500
  • Harter, M.R., Towle, V.L., and Musso, M.F. Size specificity and inter-ocular suppression: Monocular evoked potentials and reaction times. Vision Research, 1976, 16, 1111-1117. (dissertation)